Fair Value Measurement
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Measurement||
FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT
The Company recognizes its financial assets and liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis (at least annually). Fair value is defined as the price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value are as follows:
Level 1: Inputs are based upon unadjusted quoted prices for identical instruments traded in active markets.
Level 2: Inputs are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3: Inputs are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. The fair values are therefore determined using model-based techniques that include option pricing models, discounted cash flow models, and similar techniques.
The following table presents the input level used to determine the fair values of the Company’s financial instruments measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
The fair value of the Company’s interest rate swaps was determined using cash flow analysis on the expected cash flow of the contract in combination with observable market-based inputs, including interest rate curves and implied volatilities. As part of this valuation, the Company considered the credit ratings of the counterparties to the interest rate swaps to determine if a credit risk adjustment was required.
The fair value of the Company’s commodity swaps was determined using a cash flow analysis on the expected cash flow of the contract in combination with observable forward price inputs obtained from a third-party pricing source. As part of this valuation, the Company considered the credit ratings of the counterparties to the commodity swaps to determine if a credit risk adjustment was required.
The fair value of the Company’s make-whole provisions were determined by comparing them against the rates of similar debt instruments under similar terms without a make-whole provision obtained from various highly rated third-party pricing sources.
The fair value of the Company’s contingent consideration liabilities were determined by evaluating the acquired asset’s future financial forecasts and evaluating which, if any, of the cumulative revenue targets, financial metrics and/or milestones are likely to be met. The Company has classified contingent consideration related to certain acquisitions within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because the fair value is derived using significant unobservable inputs, which include discount rates and probability-weighted cash flows. The Company determined the fair value of its contingent consideration obligations based on a probability-weighted income approach derived from financial performance estimates and probability assessments of the attainment of certain targets. The Company establishes discount rates to be utilized in its valuation models based on the cost to borrow that would be required by a market participant for similar instruments. In determining the probability of attaining certain technical, financial and operation targets, the Company utilizes data regarding similar milestone events from our own experience, while considering the inherent difficulties and uncertainties in developing a product. On a quarterly basis, the Company reassesses the probability factors associated with the financial, operational and technical targets for its contingent consideration obligations. Significant judgment is employed in determining the appropriateness of these assumptions as of the acquisition date and for each subsequent period.
The key assumptions as of December 31, 2018, related to the contingent consideration from the acquisition of certain assets of Chelsea Group Limited, used in the model include a discount rate of 18% for purposes of discounting the low and base case scenarios associated with achievement of the financial based earn-out. The probabilities assigned to these scenarios were 50% for both the low and base case scenarios. An increase or decrease in the probability of achievement of any scenario could result in a significant increase or decrease to the estimated fair value of the contingent consideration liability.
The key assumptions as of December 31, 2018, related to the contingent consideration from the acquisition of certain lease options, used in the model include a discount rate of 18% for purposes of discounting the low, base and high case scenarios associated with achievement of the financial based earn-out. The probabilities assigned to these scenarios were 20% for the low case, 75% for the base case and 5% for the high case. An increase or decrease in the probability of achievement of any scenario could result in a significant increase or decrease to the estimated fair value of the contingent consideration liability.
The following table sets forth a summary of changes in fair value of contingent liabilities classified as Level 3 for the year ended December 31, 2018:
The fair value of financial instruments is determined by reference to observable market data and other valuation techniques, as appropriate. The only category of financial instruments where the difference between fair value and recorded book value is notable is long-term debt. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the fair value of the Company’s long-term debt was estimated using discounted cash flows analysis, based on the Company’s current incremental borrowing rates for similar types of borrowing arrangements which are considered to be level two inputs. There have been no transfers in or out of level two or three for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Based on the analysis performed, the fair value and the carrying value of the Company’s long-term debt, excluding capital leases, are as follows:
The Company is also required periodically to measure certain other assets at fair value on a nonrecurring basis, including long-lived assets, goodwill and other intangible assets. The Company determined the fair value used in its annual goodwill impairment analysis with its own discounted cash flow analysis. The Company has determined the inputs used in such analysis as Level 3 inputs. There were no assets recorded at fair value on a non-recurring basis at December 31, 2018 or 2017.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef